Jewish religious terrorism is religious terrorism committed by Jews. The following two groups have been considered terrorist organizations:

Gush Emunim Underground was a terrorist organization formed by prominent members of the Israeli political movement Gush Emunim, that existed from 1979–1984.

In 1983, three of its members were involved in a retaliation attack following the murder of a yeshivah student in Hebron. In broad daylight, two men entered the Islamic College of Hebron, spraying bullets and tossing a grenade. They murdered three students and wounded thirty-three. In 1990, the three perpetrators of this attack, Menachem Livni, Shaul Nir and Uzi Sharbav, were released from prison by Israeli president Chaim Herzog. On their release, the three were hailed as "heroes" by leaders of the Gush Emunim movement.

The Gush Emunim Underground also carried out car bomb attacks against Palestinian officials. As a result of these attacks, Bassam Shakaa, the mayor of Nablus lost both of his legs and Karim Khalaf, the mayor of Ramallah lost one of his legs

Time Magazine writes

The trial points up the emergence of a new kind of zealot: the West Bank settler who feels that the best way to fight Arab violence is with Jewish violence. The vengeful cycle began in May 1980, when Arabs ambushed and killed six Jewish settlers in the city of Hebron. One month later, two car bombs went off on the same morning, severing both legs of Mayor Bassam Shaka'a of Nablus and blowing off part of the left foot of Ramallah Mayor Karim Khalaf. Every few months fresh blood was shed: a settler would die after being knifed or hit by a rock, then an Arab would be killed by a booby-trapped grenade hidden among stones. In 1983, three Arabs stabbed a Jewish student to death in Hebron's marketplace; three weeks later, two men opened fire on Arab students at Hebron's Islamic College, killing three people and injuring 33.

The group was also known for masterminding a failed attempt at destroying the Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem. Shin Bet agents arrested the members during an attempted bus bombing in 1984 and during interrogation discovered the group's plot to blow up the pillars of the Dome of the Rock. Three of the men were sentenced to life in prison for the Islamic College attack. Controversially, their sentences were commuted three times after 150 Arab terrorists were freed during Jibril Agreement, so they left prison in less than seven years.

Brit HaKanaim (Hebrew: בְּרִית הַקַנַאִים‎‎, lit. Covenant of the Zealots) was a radical religious Jewish underground organisation which operated in Israel between 1950 and 1953, against the widespread trend of secularisation in the country.

The goal of the movement was to impose Jewish religious law in the State of Israel and establish a Halakhic state. The organisation's members trained using stolen weaponry, and would torch the vehicles of individuals who drove during Shabbat and the shops of butchers that sold non-kosher meat.

The Shin Bet uncovered a plot to disconnect the flow of electricity to the Knesset and throw a smoke bomb into the Knesset Plenum, during the course of a debate about the drafting of women into the Israeli Defense Forces. On 26 May 1953, two members of the organisation were arrested on their way to place an explosive device in the Ministry of Education building in protest against the state education system. The members arrested possessed a list of the group's members, which were all arrested shortly thereafter. Four of those arrested were sentenced to short periods of imprisonment. During the period of their detention there surfaced allegations of police malconduct in the treatment of the detainees, and a parliamentary inquiry was established to investigate the conduct of the police forces.

They completed their terms of imprisonment prior to the completion of the trial in the Jalmi prison, near Sha'ar HaAmakim. Since, the group has also sometimes been referred to as the Jalmi Underground.

Among the members of the group were Rabbi Mordechai Eliyahu, who later served as the Sephardic Chief Rabbi of Israel, and Shlomo Lorincz who later served as chairman of the Knesset Finance Committee as a member of Agudat Yisrael.

Another radical Jewish underground organisation which operated at this time was Malchut Yisrael, which was also exposed in 1953 following the arrest of the two members from Brit HaKanaim.




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